Medical Laboratory Technology Journal <p style="text-align: justify;">Medical Laboratory Technology Journal, with registered number ISSN 2461-0879 (online) is a scientific journal published by <a href="">Poltekkes Kemenkes Banjarmasin</a> in cooperation with <a href="">PATELKI</a> with the <a href="">MOU</a>. The aim of this journal publication is to disseminate the conceptual thoughts or ideas and research results that have achieved in the area of medical laboratory sciences. This Journal particularly focuses on the main problems in the development of the sciences of medical laboratory areas. It covers the parasitology, bacteriology, virology, hematology, clinical chemistry, toxicology, food and drink chemistry, and any sciences that cover sciences of medical laboratory area. Please read these guidelines carefully. Authors who want to submit their manuscript to the editorial office of Medical Laboratory Technology Journal should obey the writing guidelines. If the manuscript submitted is not appropriate with the guidelines or written in a different format, it will BE REJECTED by the editors before further reviewed. The editors will only accept the manuscripts which meet the assigned format.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Medical Laboratory Technology Journal (MLTJ) has been reaccredited by Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia since Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018 until Vol. 9, No. 1, 2023 with grade 2nd according to the <a href="">decree No. 10/E/KPT/2019</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Official Certificate. </a></p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Publishing your paper with <strong>Medical Laboratory Technology Journal (MLTJ)</strong> means that the author or authors retain the copyright in the paper. MLTJ granted an author(s) rights to put the paper onto a website, distribute it to colleagues, give it to students, use it in your thesis etc, even commercially. The author(s) can reuse the figures and tables and other information contained in their paper published by MLTJ in future papers or work without having to ask anyone for permission, provided that the figures, tables or other information that is included in the new paper or work properly references the published paper as the source of the figures, tables or other information, and the new paper or work is not direct at private monetary gain or commercial advantage. <p style="text-align: justify;">MLTJ journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This journal is licensed under a<a href="" target="_blank"> Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>. This license lets others remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. MLTJ journal Open Access articles are distributed under this<strong><a href="" target="_blank"> Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-SA)</strong>. Articles can be read and shared for All purposes under the following conditions:</address><address style="padding-left: 30px;"><br /> <strong>BY:</strong> You must give <a href="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a href="" target="_blank">indicate if changes</a> were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</address><address style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>SA:</strong> If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.</address> (Leka Lutpiatina) (Ricko Dharmadi Utama) Sat, 11 Mar 2023 14:29:18 +0700 OJS 60 Correlation Analysis of Interleukin-6 on Blood Glucose in Prediabetes and Normal Glycemic Status <p>Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem whose incidence rate continues to increase yearly. Most people with diabetes mellitus go through the prediabetes phase. Prediabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels are elevated but have not yet reached the criteria for diabetes mellitus. Low-grade chronic inflammation is one of the pathways known to interfere with insulin signalling that ultimately affects blood glucose levels. One of the most studied inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is interleukin-6 (IL-6). This study aims to determine whether there were differences in IL-6 levels between groups of prediabetes subjects and normal subjects and to observe the correlation between IL-6 levels and blood glucose. This study is useful in providing additional scientific evidence on the development of diabetes mellitus, especially in blood glucose regulation through inflammatory pathways. The design of this study was analytic observational in 71 subjects with prediabetes or normal glycemic status. Prediabetes status was established based on fasting blood glucose levels and glucose levels 2 hours post oral glucose tolerance test. Subjects with fasting blood glucose levels&gt; 125mg/ dl and who had a fever in the last week were excluded from the study. Interleukin 6 levels were measured based on the principle of enzyme-linked immunoassay. The correlation of interleukin 6 with glucose levels and other variables was analyzed using the spearmen test. The results showed that interleukin 6 levels did not differ between the prediabetes group and the normal group ((5.27 ± 2.55 pg/ml) vs (4.44 ± 2.46) respectively; (p=0.105)). There was no correlation between interleukin 6 level and fasting blood glucose level (r=0.014, p=0.908) and glucose level after the oral glucose tolerance test (r=-0.085, p=0.480). In this study, there was a significant correlation between body mass index with waist circumference (r=0.772, p=0.000) and glucose levels after the oral glucose tolerance test (r=0.240; p&lt;0.001). Recommends the addition of anti-inflammatory cytokines and variable insulin to assess further the effect of the inflammatory process on the glucose metabolism of subjects in future studies.</p> Ratih Feraritra Danu Atmaja, Theosobia Grace Orno, Tuty Yuniarty, Handayani Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Ratih Feraritra Danu Atmaja, Theosobia Grace Orno, Tuty Yuniarty, Handayani Malik Sat, 11 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Coagulation Profile In Diabetes Mellitus And Its Association with Microvascular Complications in Uncontrolled and Controlled Diabetes at Edo Specialist Hospital, Benin-City, South-South, Nigeria <p>Diabetes mellitus induces coagulopathies by glycating haemoglobin, prothrombin, fibrinogen, and other proteins involved in the clotting mechanism. Shortened PTTK and PT represent a hypercoagulable state related to an elevated thrombotic risk and a negative cardiovascular effect, both of which can lead to the onset and progression of microvascular and macrovascular problems. The study aims to compare the coagulation profile in diabetes-related microvascular complications in clients with uncontrolled and controlled diabetes at an Edo specialty hospital in Benin City. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at ESH in Benin City. Two hundred eighty individuals were recruited for the study, including 215 diabetes patients (55 type I diabetes, 160 type II diabetes, and 65 non-diabetics) attending the outpatient department of ESH in Benin City. Blood was drawn for coagulation and biochemical assays. Diabetes patients had significantly lower levels of PT and PTTK compared to non-diabetes controls (p&lt;0.05). Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were considerably higher (p&lt;0.05). The PTTK level was much lower in type 2 diabetes than in type 1 diabetes, and there was a significant difference in platelet count between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Female diabetes patients had lower levels of PTTK and PT than male diabetic patients. Furthermore, in diabetes with complications, the levels of PTTK and platelet count were lower (p0.05). It was discovered that insulin treatment decreased platelet count, whereas sulfonylurea increased fibrinogen levels in people with diabetes. Diabetes may increase the risk of clotting, as indicated by shorter PTTK, PT, and higher fibrinogen and D-dimer levels compared to controls. The coagulation profile should be evaluated as a regular screening test in diabetes patients to reduce the incidence and prevalence of vascular burden and to improve quality of life.</p> fidelis oyakhire, Babatunde Ishola Gabriel Adejumo, Olufunke Victoria Aiyegbusi, Enehizena Osaro Ogie, Eseoghene Valentine Egho, Promise Bassey Ochannah, Enor Sylvia, Usman Itakure Abdulkadir Copyright (c) 2023 fidelis oyakhire, Babatunde Ishola Gabriel Adejumo, Olufunke Victoria Aiyegbusi, Enehizena Osaro Ogie, Eseoghene Valentine Egho, Promise Bassey Ochannah, Enor Sylvia, Usman Itakure Abdulkadir Sat, 18 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Correlation of Parasitaemia and Anemia in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA <p>Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus <em>Plasmodium</em> and transmitted through the bite of a female <em>Anopheles</em> mosquito. <em>Plasmodium berghei</em> ANKA is a species of rodent malaria parasite that is commonly used to study malaria pathology and the immune system against infections. Parasitaemia in malaria is the figure of malaria pathology due to some numbers of parasite-infected erythrocytes present in the peripheral blood. Hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) levels are the parameters of anemia and some hematological changes caused by malaria infection. This study aimed to determine the correlation between parasitemia and anemia in BABL/c mice infected with <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>ANKA. Two uninfected and infected mice groups were compared for parasitemia, HGB, and HCT levels. Analysis statistics showed a significant difference in HGB and HCT between uninfected and infected groups. Pearson correlation analysis showed no significant correlation between parasitemia and HGB and HCT levels in infected mice. Anemia in mice infected with <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>ANKA can occur when parasitemia is even low; the higher parasitemia worsens the hamatological condition. Parasitemia plays a role independently in the severity of anemia. <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>infection in mice is useful for studying malaria anemia.</p> Inas Hasna Azizah, Stevani Florentia Bahi, Heny Arwati, Mufassirin Copyright (c) 2023 Heny Arwati, Inas Hasna Azizah, Stevani Florentia Bahi, Mufassirin Sat, 11 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Profile and Role of Serum Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular-Axis Hormones on Sexual Function of Older Men with Type-2 Diabetes <p>Little information is available on the complex endocrinology of sexual dysfunction, which is frequently associated with ageing and diabetes. We wanted to examine the serum profile of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis (HPTA) hormones and how they relate to sexual function in older men with type-2 diabetes. This study included 74 participants (44 type-2 diabetics and 30 healthy controls). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to measure serum levels of total testosterone (Te), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). Compared to controls, diabetic patients had significantly higher FSH and PRL levels but lower Te levels. Testosterone was found to be significantly correlated with sexual intercourse frequency (p&lt;0.01), erectile function, and libido (p&lt; 0.001). We discovered significant (p &lt; 0.001) relationships between libido, penile erection, and FSH, as well as between PRL and libido (p&lt; 0.05). When compared to the other hormones, testosterone had the strongest associations with the frequency of sexual intercourse (p&lt; 0.05), libido (p&lt; 0.05), and penile erection (p&lt; 0.01). Our findings indicated that HPTA hormones might have a significant influence on sexual functions in type-2 diabetic patients, with Te being the most important HPTA hormone influencing sexual functions in diabetic patients. This study, therefore, helps to clarify the complex endocrinology and physiology of the sexual dysfunction frequently observed in older men with type-2 diabetes and also supports the use of testosterone replacement therapy in older diabetic adults.</p> Babatunde Ishola Gabriel Adejumo, Grace Umahi-ottah, fidelis oyakhire, Olufunke Victoria Aiyegbusi, Uchechukwu Dimkpa, Oladimeji Nasiru Abdulrahman, Emmanuel Ojeideleko Akhaumere, Simon Uzor Copyright (c) 2023 fidelis oyakhire, Babatunde Ishola Gabriel Adejumo, Grace Umahi-ottah, Olufunke Victoria Aiyegbusi, Uchechukwu Dimkpa, Oladimeji Nasiru Abdulrahman, Emmanuel Ojeideleko Akhaumere, Simon Uzor Sat, 18 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Analysıs of Urınary Albumın and Urınary Synaptopodın Levels in Type 2 Dıabetes Mellıtus Subjects <p>Hyperglycemia from diabetes mellitus affects many body organs and interferes with normal function. Kidney function decreased in approximately one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus before the development of albuminuria. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in urine albumin and urine synaptopodin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-DM subjects, differences in urine synaptopodin levels in T2DM subjects with and without nephropathy, to analyze the correlation between urine albumin and urine synaptopodin in T2DM subjects and the cut-off analysis of sensitivity and specificity of urinary synaptopodin in diagnosing diabetic nephropathy. A sample of 60 subjects comprised 40 T2DM subjects and 20 non-DM subjects. Urinary synaptopodin levels were examined using the ELISA method, and albuminuria levels using the immunoturbidimetric method. Based on statistical analysis, the results showed that there were differences in urine albumin levels in T2DM and non-DM subjects (<em>p</em>*= &lt; 0.001), there were differences in urine synaptopodin levels in T2DM and non-DM subjects (<em>p</em>*= &lt; 0.001), there were no differences in urine synaptopodin levels with and without nephropathy in T2DM subjects (<em>p</em>*= 0.090), a relationship was found between urine albumin and urinary synaptopodin in T2DM subjects (<em>p</em>*= 0.048, r= 0.314) and the cut off of urinary synaptopodin in diagnosing nephropathy was ³0.39 ng/mL, sensitivity 64.7% and specificity 56.5%. We recommend further prospective studies with larger sample sizes to compare urinary synaptopodin levels and microalbuminuria (MAU) as markers for early detection of DN in T2DM subjects.</p> Afni Juhairia Laisouw, Liong Boy Kurniawan, Yuyun Widaningsih, Tenri Esa, Himawan Sanusi, Andi Alfian Zainuddin, Theosobia Grace Orno Copyright (c) 2023 Afni Juhairia Laisouw, Liong Boy Kurniawan, Yuyun Widaningsih, Tenri Esa, Himawan Sanusi, Andi Alfian Zainuddin, Theosobia Grace Orno Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Identification of Acute Respiratory Infection Patients Using RP2 Nested Multiplex PCR Test in Jakarta, Indonesia <p>Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is an acute respiratory disease caused by infectious organisms transmitted between humans. Viruses and bacteria generally cause the cause of ARI infection. Other viruses that can also cause ARI are Influenza, Adenovirus, Enterovirus, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. This study aims to determine the causes of bacterial or viral ARI infection with RP2 Nested Multiplex RT-PCR. The research methodology is cross-sectional. The sample used was 50 people with purposive sampling technique in patients with ARI who examined bacteria and viruses using RP2 Nested Multiplex RT-PCR. The research was located at the Laboratory of the United States Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia. The results showed that 26 (52%) men suffered more from ARI patients than 24 women (46%), with the most age group being children, 28 people (56%). The three symptoms that many patients in this study felt were that 40 patients (80%) experienced nasal congestion, 38 patients (76%) experienced fever, and 32 patients (64%) coughed. The results of the organisms in the RP2 nested multiplex RT-PCR examination showed that 100% of the causes of ARI were viruses with the highest prevalence (40%) originating from the Human Rhinovirus/Enterovirus. The reason for ARI in this research is from a virus (100%), so antibiotics are not needed for this patient.</p> Dewi Inderiati, Tanty Rachmawaty, Citra Amaniah Anhar Copyright (c) 2023 Dewi Inderiati, Tanty Rachmawaty, Citra Amaniah Anhar Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Haematological Parameters in Preterm Neonates Admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Though reference haematological parameters are defined for neonates, ranges vary in preterm. Few data are available regarding the premature population during the first month of life. Objective: To observe the variation in haematological parameters concerning different gestational ages, birth weights and gender among preterm neonates admitted to NICU with common illnesses like respiratory distress (RDS), neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) and sepsis in a tertiary care hospital. A total of ninety preterm neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were analyzed over two years. Complete blood counts were obtained, grouped and analyzed according to the underlying diagnosis of sepsis, NNH and RDS. Clinical data were also extracted. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 25. Mean, Chi-square test and ANOVA tests were used for data analysis. P value &lt;0.05 was considered significant. Result: Variation was seen concerning gestational age and birth weight. Eosinophils were significantly decreased in LBW, while a decrease in neutrophils and an increase in lymphocyte count were seen in EPT. Haemoglobin and RBC indices also showed significant variation according to birth weight. Conclusions research complete blood counts of preterm depend on the degree of prematurity, birth weight, and other clinical findings.</p> Dwepa Kamlesh Parikh, Amit Ravindra Nisal, Ravindra Chandrashekhar Nimbargi Copyright (c) 2023 Dwepa Kamlesh Parikh, Amit Ravindra Nisal, Ravindra Chandrashekhar Nimbargi Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700 The Emergence of Mupirocin Resistance among Staphylococcus aureus in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: The Necessity for Routine Susceptibility Testing <p>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is difficult to treat, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Nasal carriage of MRSA can occur both in healthcare workers and patients. Mupirocin is used as a topical agent for the eradication of such isolates. The present study aims to study the prevalence of mupirocin resistance among the MRSA and MSSA (Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) isolates. A total of 148 <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates were tested. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method for amoxicillin, penicillin, cotrimoxazole, clindamycin, mupirocin(5 µg and 200 µg discs for low and high-level resistance), erythromycin, gentamicin and linezolid. MRSA isolates were detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion and Mec A detection by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). MRSA was detected among 44 (29.7%) of the isolates. Among MSSA, good susceptibility was observed for cotrimoxazole 89 (85.5%) and clindamycin 92 (88.4%). An overall mupirocin resistance of 12(8.1%) was observed, with high-level resistance at 4 (2.7%) and low-level resistance at 8 (5.4%).The mupirocin resistance pattern between MRSA and MSSA was not statistically significant (p=0.1833). The emergence of mupirocin resistance highlights the necessity for creating cognizance among clinicians before prescribing mupirocin. In eradicating nasal carriage of MRSA, all the isolates should always be tested for mupirocin susceptibility to prevent the selection and spread of drug-resistant isolates.</p> Abirami lakshmy Jayachandran, Balan Kandasamy Copyright (c) 2023 Abirami lakshmy Jayachandran, Balan Kandasamy Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700