Semen Leucocytes Affect Sperm Quality of Infertility Patient


  • Fitranto Arjadi Medical Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia
  • Vitasari Indriani Medical Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia
  • Wahyu Siswandari Medical Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia
  • Edy Priyanto Medical Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia
  • Mulyoto Pangestu Medical Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia



The association between the risk factors for male infertility including smoking, obesity, male age, and leukocyte count with sperm analysis, still shows mixed results. This study aims to determine the association between smoking, obesity, male age, and leukocytes count with sperm quality (sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology) of infertility patients in Purwokerto. This study is an observational study with a cross-sectional design conducted in the medical records section of the Bunda Arif Hospital Purwokerto. The sample was taken by total sampling. The bivariate test of smoking and obesity behaviour variables with the results of sperm quality using the Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test. Male age variables used the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Spearman correlation test. Variable leukocytes count using the Spearman test. The results showed no association between male age, obesity and smoking behaviour with sperm quality, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology (p>0.05). There is a significant association (p<0,05) between leukocyte semen count and spermatozoa concentration, sperm motility, and morphology of spermatozoa. It is concluded that there was a significant association between leukocyte count and sperm quality in infertility patients in Purwokerto. Research needs to be continued by examining the relationship between leukocytopenia and sperm DNA damage by looking at sperm DNA fragmentation.


Castellini C, D’Andrea S, M. A. (2020). Relationship between leukocytospermia, the reproductive potential after assisted reproductive technology, and sperm parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Andrology, 8, 125–135. DOI: 10.1111/andr.12662

De Brucker, S., Drakopoulos, P., Dhooghe, E., De Geeter, J., Uvin, V., Santos-Ribeiro, S., Michielsen, D., Tournaye, H. and De Brucker, M. (2020). The effect of cigarette smoking on the semen parameters of infertile men. Gynecological Endocrinology, 36(12),1127–1130.doi: 1775195.

Durairajanayagam, D. (2018). Lifestyle causes of male infertility. Arab Journal of Urology, 16(1), 10-20,. doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.aju.2017.12.004.

Fedder (1996). Nonsperm cells in human semen: particular reference to seminal leukocytes and their possible influence on fertility. Arch Androl 1996; 36: pp. 41–65. DOI: 10.3109/01485019608987883

Ferial, E. . (2016). Kajian Infertinfertilitas Pria dan Usaha Penanganannya. Prosiding Seminar Nasional from Basic Science to Comprehensive Education, 77–80.

Franzoni, F., Scarfò, G., Guidotti, S., Fusi, J., Asomov, M., & Pruneti, C. (2021) .Oxidative Stress and Cognitive Decline: The Neuroprotective Role of Natural Antioxidants. Frontiers in neuroscience, 15(729757). doi:

Gonzalez, BMA., G. V. (2015). The Fork and The Kinase: A DNA Replication Tale from a CHK1. Perspective Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res., 763(1), 168-180. doi:

Harlev, A., Agarwal, A., Gunes, S. O., Shetty, A., dan du Plessis, S. S. (2015) .Smoking and Male Infertility: An Evidence-Based Review. The World Journal of Men’s Health, 33(3), 143-160. DOI: 10.5534/wjmh.2015.33.3.143

Harzif, A. K., & Wiweko, B. (2019). Penanganan Konsensus Infertilitas. Himpunan Endokrinologi Reproduksi dan Fertilitas - Perkumpulan Obstetri dan Ginekologi Indonesia (HIFERI-POGI). Available at: (accessed on 5th May 2022)

Harzif, A. K., Santawi, V. P. A. and Wijaya, S. (2019). The discrepancy in perception of infertility and attitude towards treatment options: Indonesian urban and rural area. Reproductive Health,16(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1186/s12978-019-0792-8.

Hassa, H., Yildirim, A., Can, C., Turgut, M., Tanir, H.M., Senses, T. dan Sahin-Mutlu, F. (2006). Effect of smoking on semen parameters of men attending an infertility clinic. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology., 33(1), 19-22. PMID: 16761532

Ilyassa, M. (2019). Pengaruh Usia Pria terhadap Hasil Analisis Semen Di Klinik Intan Palembang. Laporan Penelitian. Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang

Jeng, H.A., Chen, Y.L. dan Kantaria, K. N. (2014). Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan. Part A. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 49(3), 262-268. DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2014.846195

Kheradmand, A., Mombeini, H., Afroogh, M., Mousavinezhad, M., Ghalambaz, E. (2017). Examining The Association of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference with Semen Analysis Parameters among Infertile Men. Journal of Medical Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, 6, 784–796.

Khodamoradi, K., Kuchakulla, M., Narasimman, M., Khosravizadeh, Z., Ali, A., Brackett, N., Ibrahim, E., & Ramasamy, R. (2020). Laboratory and clinical management of leukocytospermia and hematospermia: a review. Therapeutic advances in reproductive health, 14, 2633494120922511. doi:

Koh, S.-A., Sanders, K. & Burton, P. (2016). Effect of male age on oxidative stress markers in human semen. Journal of Reproductive Biotechnology and Fertility, 5, 1–10. doi: 10.1177/2058915816673242.

Kumar, R., Soni, G. C., & Prajapati, S. K. (2017). Formulation development and evaluation of Telmisartan Nanoemulsion. International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy & Life Sciences, 6(4), 2711-2719. doi:

Lackner, J.E., Agarwal, A., Mahfouz, R., du Plessis, S.S., dan Schatzi, G. (2010). The Association Between Leukocytes and Sperm Quality is Concentration Dependent. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 8(12), 1–6. doi: doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-8-12

Oliveira, J.B.A., Petersen, C.G., Mauri, A.L., Vagnini, L.D, Renzi, A., Petersen, B., E. (2018). Association between body mass index and sperm quality and sperm DNA integrity. A large population study. Andrologia., 50(3), 12889. DOI: 10.1111/and.12889

Park, Y.S., Park, S., Ko, D.S., Park, D.W, Seo, J.T, Yang, K. M. (2014). Observation of sperm-head vacuoles and sperm morphology under the light microscope. Clin Exp Reprod, 41(1), 132–36.

Pino V, Sanz A, Valdés N, Crosby J, M. A. (2020). The effects of aging on semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation. JBRA Assist Reprod, 24(1), 82-86. doi: 10.5935/1518-0557.20190058. PMID: 31692316; PMCID: PMC6993171.

Sengupta, P., Roychoudhury, S., Nath, M., & Dutta, S. (2022). Oxidative Stress and Idiopathic Male Infertility. Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1358, 181–204. doi:

WHO. (2021). Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.Sixth Edition. Geneva. Available at: (accessed on 20th August 2022)

WHO. (2020a). International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 GB04 Male infertility. Available at: (accessed on 20th August 2022)WHO.(2020b). Sexual and Reproduction Health: Infertility Definitions and Terminology.Available at: (accessed on 20th August 2022)

Zhang, J., Yang, B., Cai , Z., Li, H., Han, T., dan Wang, Y. (2019). The Negative Impact of Higher Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality and Erectile Function: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Chinese Males of Infertile Couples. American Journal of Men's Health, 13(1),1-8. doi:




How to Cite

Arjadi, F., Indriani, V., Siswandari, W., Priyanto, E., & Pangestu, M. (2022). Semen Leucocytes Affect Sperm Quality of Infertility Patient. Medical Laboratory Technology Journal, 8(2), 159–167.